The original constitution was made in 1972 and it amended 15 times. It embodied some fundamental and basic features or characteristics. These features are as follows:
The Constitution of The People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a written one, and has a formal document. With 153 articles, 7 schedules, 10 parts and 1 preamble. All provision where we go, that’s written down here.
The constitution of Bangladesh is a rigid one. It cannot amend by the ordinary law making procedure, and it very difficult to modify or change. Only vote of two third majority of parliament member can amend this constitution.
The constitution of Bangladesh starts with a preamble. This is called as the guiding star or moral basis of the constitution. Preamble lays down the most important national goals such as Democracy, Socialism, Nationalism and Secularism.
Constitutional supremacy has been ensured in the constitution of Bangladesh. Article 7 provided that “this constitution is the supreme law of the republic”. And it is the fundamental law of the country, in any other law is inconsistent with this constitution that other law shall be void.
Article 1 of the constitution provide that “Bangladesh is a unitary peoples republic as opposed to federal republic. And all power under the constitution.” In unitary Gov. system constitution is central power of the state.
Articles 65 of the constitution provide a unicameral legislature for Bangladesh. It is only one house to be known as the ‘House of Nation’. (এক কক্ষ বিশেষ্ঠ পার্লামেন্ট)
Part II, Article 8 to 25 of the constitution provides the directive principle (fundamental principle of state policy). The main principles are: - Nationalism, Socialism, Democracy, secularism. Government must ensure these principles on their governing policy.
Fundamental rights are absolute rights a citizen of a country. Part III and Article 27 to 44 of the constitution provide 18 fundamental rights such as equality before law, equality of opportunity in public employment, right to protection of law, protection of right to life and personal liberty, freedom of movement, freedom of thought etc. Fundamental rights protected by the constitutional guarantee. If executive violate these rights the defendant can go Supreme Court for remedy according to under Article 44 of this constitution.
The constitution of Bangladesh provides a Westminster type of parliamentary system. In other word cabinet from of government.
Part V, Article 77 of the constitution provides a ombudsman system to overview the activities of civil bureaucracy, to eradicate corruption in the administration and to ensure the responsibility of the government. But till now this office has not yet been implemented in Bangladesh.