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Sunday, April 19, 2015

Who is Lawyer?

The person practices law is a lawyer. A lawyer conducts lawsuit against the opposite party. A lawyer possesses “the real skill in judging, as it is in lawyering, is in being able properly to find and articulate the issues.” Lawyering is a noble profession, who knows the ins and outs of legal technicalities, initially judges the case and advice the clients, and represents them in the court of law and follow up the case. 

Advocates are, “men learned in law and respected as models of integrity, imbued with the spirit of public service and dedicated to the task of upholding the rule of law and defending at all times, without fear or favour, the rights of citizen.”

Sunday, April 12, 2015

The object of Specific Relief Act 1877.

The real object of giving specific relief is to protect some civil right of a person or to protect wrong being done to him. Specific relief would be granted if this is the object of the suitor. But it would not be granted, if the sole object and result of the specific relief claimed is the enforcing of penal law. This Act does not restrict a person’s remedies. It provides for equitable remedies. A person is not bound to sue for a particular relief. It is for the party himself to choose whether he may ask for specific performance or mere damages.

Therefore, in case of breach of contract, if the remedies provided by monetary compensation is not adequate and there is not possible to determine the slandered of damages. Specific relief will be granted in order to ensure the ends of justice. This is the sole object of Specific Relief Act, 1877. And this Act extends to the whole of Bangladesh.

Saturday, April 11, 2015

The Modes or Process of Alternative Dispute Resolution in Artharin Adalat Ain.

Government brings necessary change into the Code of Civil Procedure and also in Artharin Adalat Ain, 2003 for money loan recovery. After new Amendment of the Act in 2010 this Act provides mediation as single mode of alternative disputes resolution. Chapter 5 and section 22 to 25, 38, 44A provide provisions of mediation in Artharin Adalat Ain 2003.

Process of Alternative Dispute Resolution in Artharin Adalat Ain:
Mediation is compulsory and it begins after defendant files written statement. This Act adopted court annexed ADR mechanism both pre-trial and post-trial stages in a suit. The stages are-
1.      Mediation after filing written statement;   Sec- 22
2.      Mediation before pronouncement of judgment ;  Sec- 23
3.      Mediation at execution stage of the suit; and   Sec-38
4.      Mediation at appellate or revision stage.  Sec- 44A

After filing written statement the Court by adjourning the hearing shall order for mediation to settle their dispute, or if all the contesting party through application to the Court wishes to settle their dispute through mediation, the Court shall so mediate.  Sec- 22(1)

Appointment of Mediator:
Parties by their mutual agreement or their lawyer with their consent may appoint following person as mediator-
a.       Another lawyer who is nor engaged with any of the parties;
b.      Retired judge;
c.       Retired financial institutions or bank officers; or
d.      Other persons deem to be suitable for this act.
But if a person holding office of profit in service of republic shall not be eligible for appointment as mediator.   Sec-22(2)
The parties to the dispute by their mutual agreement determine the charge or fees of mediator. Sec- 22(3)

After appointment of mediator the parties must inform the name of mediator to the Court within 10 days. If the fails to appoint within this time the Court shall appoint mediator. The mediation shall be concluded within 60 days from the day on which the court so informed about the appointment of mediator. If they fails to conclude the dispute, the court in its own motion or joint prayer by the parties can extended time not exceeding 30 days.  Sec-22(4)

If the result is compromise of the dispute, the term of such agreement shall be send to the Court, bearing the signature or thumb impression of the parties as executants. Sec-22(6)
After that the Court shall pronounced a decree according to Order 23 of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. Sec-22(7)

When the mediation fails to produce any compromise, the Court shall proceed with the hearing of the suit from the stage where the decision of mediation was taken. Sec-22(8)

The proceeding of mediation under this section shall be confidential and it will be inadmissible in any subsequent proceedings.  Sec-22(9)
No appeal or revision shall lie against any order or decree passed by the Court in pursuance of settlement of disputes under this section. Sec-22(11)

Mediation in Post-trail stages:
If the mediation process fails under subsection 22, the both parties with the permission of Court may apply for mediation again at any stage before pronouncement of judgment under section 23.

Mediation at execution stage of the suit:
According to sec 38 at the stage of execution of decree the parties may settle  the dispute through mediation by inform to the Court.

Problem on Pusishment of Culpable homicide under sec 304 of Penal Code.

“ক” তাহার স্ত্রীর সহিত যৌনঙ্গমরত অবস্থায় “খ” কে দেখে তাকে মেরে ফেললো। এক্ষেত্রে “ক” কে কি অপরাধী এবং হত্যাকারী হিসাবে সাবস্ত্য করা হবে ?

কোন স্বামী যখন তার স্ত্রীর সহিতযৌন্সঙ্গমে লিপ্ত দেখিয়া কাহাকেও মারে ফেলে, তখন তা খুন হয় না। উহাতে যে অপরাধ হয়, তাহা খুন নয়; ইহা অপরাধ জনক প্রাণহানি (culpable homicide) হিসাবে বিবেচ্য হবে। এক্ষেত্রে স্বামী penal code এর ৩০৪ নং ধারা অনুযায়ী দোষী সাবস্ত্য হবে। Whoever commit culpable homicide not amounting to murder, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also liable to fine.
“যখন কোন স্বামী তাহার স্ত্রীকে অবৈধ সঙ্গমে লিপ্ত দেখিয়া তাহাকে মারিয়া ফেলে তখন সে মানুষের প্রাণহানির দায়ে দোষী হয়, খুনের দায়ে নয়। এই আইন সেক্ষেত্রে প্রযোজ্য হবে না, যেক্ষেত্রে সংশিলষ্ট স্ত্রী লোকটি আসামীর স্ত্রী নয়।